P and S Body-Wave Tomography of the Western US Upper Mantle

P and S Body-Wave Tomography of the Western US Upper Mantle Station map in upper left. P and S tomography at 90 km depth in center and right panels in upper row. Middle left shows Vp/Vs tomography at 90 km depth. Middle right panel shows dlnVs/dlnVp for model nodes from the joint inversion. The nodes in the red box follow the trend predicted numerically and theoretically for partially molten mantle. On the Vp/Vs map the nodes from the red box are outlined (white dashed) and generally correspond regions where asthenospheric ascent is expected. Bottom image shows cross-section A-A' labeled on the Vp map in the top row. The Juan de Fuca-Gorda slab is clearly imaged and disconnected from the older Farallon slab which is within and beneath the transition zone.
We invert teleseismic travel-time residuals from the EarthScope Transportable Array and more than 1700 additional temporary and permanent stations for 3-D velocity perturbations to a depth of 1000 km. The inversion uses recent advances in western U.S. crust models to better isolate the mantle component of travel-time residuals, and frequency-dependent 3-D sensitivity kernels to map travel-time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, into velocity structure. In addition to separate Vp and Vs models, we jointly invert the two datasets for Vp/Vs perturbations by imposing a smoothness constraint on the dlnVs/dlnVp field. The joint inversion helps us identify regions where partial melt is probable. The amplitude of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs variations is greatest in the upper 200 km of the mantle and the form of velocity anomalies suggests a provincially heterogeneous lithosphere and the occurrence of widespread small-scale convection. Partially molten mantle is inferred beneath Yellowstone and the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP), the Salton Trough, and the Clear Lake volcanic field. The inferred depth extent of partial melt is consistent with a generally hydrated upper mantle and elevated temperatures beneath the eastern SRP and Yellowstone. Despite more than 100 My of continuous subduction, the distribution of sub-lithospheric high-velocity anomalies is dissected (similar to other recent studies). Based on our new tomography models, western U.S. geologic history, and plate-tectonic reconstructions, we infer patchy and incomplete removal of the flat-subducting Laramide slab and slab tearing associated with Eocene accretion in the northwestern U.S.</p>


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