During September 2008, well over 100 seismologists and geophysicists attended the long-range science plan for seismology (LRSPS) workshop where they presented exciting new research successes and highlighted fundamental knowledge gaps. The workshop culminated in a community-Driven set of grand challenges that span a range of earth systems, show the wide range of topics in which seismological research plays an integral role, and can help drive future science initiatives, including:
• How do faults slip?
• How does the near-surface environment affect natural hazards and resources?
• What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere?
• How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?
• Where are water and hydrocarbons hidden beneath the surface?
• How to magmas ascend and erupt?
• What is the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary?
• How to plate boundary systems evolve?
• How do temperature and composition variations control mantle and core convection?
• How are Earth’s internal boundaries affected by dynamics?</p>


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